Metals Processing

In the column to the right you will find useful information about the processing of metals.

Below you will find recent posts on the 4M Association which are considered to be of interest to the Metals Interest Group.


Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

As it is defined at conventional length scale, forging processes are usually applied at a specimen temperature of above the recrystallisation temperature. A reduction of the specimen size down to micro scale is always subjected to a significant change in the ratio between surface and volume yielding high oxidation and thus material loss and surface damage. To avoid the oxidation problem, a reduction of the forming temperature down to warm forging is necessary.


Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Rolling is a fabrication process in which the metal is passed through a pair of rolls. There are two types of rolling process, flat and profile rolling. In flat rolling the final shapes of the product are foil (thickness less than 1 mm), sheet (thickness less than 3 mm) or plate (thickness more than 3 mm). In profile rolling, the final product may be a round rod or other shaped bar. This process is gaining an increasing interest if the foil or sheet metal used for subsequent production processes like bending, punching, etc.


Technology suitable small quantity production

Term “bonding” include two different processes: diffusion bonding and electrostatic bonding. Diffusion bonding can be performed in solid and liquid state and is based on the diffusion of materials in each other that are assisted by uniform application of heat and pressure on the parts to be joined. The most widespread use of diffusion bonding in micro technology has been for die bonding of silicon chips on the gold plated substrates, using the gold-silicon eutectic. It can be used also for plane joining of ceramics to metals, e.g.

Laser Welding/Soldering

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Laser micro welding is a process to realize a precise weld joints with small distortion on small and tiny metal or plastic parts in the range of micrometers and millimeters size. The principle of laser welding is based on the heating and melting of the material caused by absorption of laser high-power radiation. For laser microwelding two types of laser sources are used: cw laser for seam welding and pulsed laser with pulse duration about 1-10 ms for single spot or spot seam welding.

Resistance Welding/Soldering

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Resistance welding (together with related resistance soldering processes) utilizes an applied forging pressure and heat generated by an electric current thought the workpiece.

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Metals Processing

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